about this blog

I started this blog in 2008. It started mainly as a way of tracking the evolution of my dry garden, and that led to an interest in photography and in the creatures that live in the garden. It's still about the garden and wildlife, but now my passion is thinking about how we humans can learn to co-exist with wild animals and plants, especially in urban areas.

Thursday, 24 November 2016

scats: a post about poo

You mightn't see an animal, but you know it's been there because it's left its droppings, or pellets, or scats, for you to identify.

I found this on a garden chair, dried out. It was made by  a possum, I think. I was hoping it was a possum and not a rat. I found a website explaining the difference between a few scats. Rats produce narrow cylindrical pellets with one or both ends pointed. I'm relieved to notice that the ends of this poo are definitely rounded, not pointed.

The poo is this picture is larger and fresher.  I think this was also made by a possum, probably ringtail, taking a drink from the bird bath. It's the same shape as the one above. Ringtails eat fruit, flowers and leaves. You can see the seeds it's been eating.

Ringtail possums eat their own faecal pellets. That way they digest their food twice and make sure they get all the nutrients.

Wednesday, 12 October 2016

a few garden pics from autumn and spring

Earthstar fungi

Black House Spider with dead fly

Unidentified fungi

Yam Daisy

Cistus x skanbergii

Erigeron, Blue Fescue grass and self seeded Valerian

Purple wallflower with Dietes bicolor and Pittosporum in background

Orange wallflower with silver leaved Santolina and Euphorbia Silver Swan

Tuesday, 17 May 2016

this blog is sleeping

It's been a long time between posts, and I don't know when the next one will happen. Non virtual life is currently very busy.

The garden is still evolving, and this gardener is still evolving ... I miss sharing the garden and spiders and fungi and thoughts and learnings about all aspects of nature.

I pronounce this blog as dormant. It's not dead, just resting till I return. 

Best regards to all you cyberfriends out there,

PS The photos were taken during a recent visit to the Grange Heathland Reserve.

Lentinellus spp. with tiny unidentified red fungi
Cortinarius areolatoimbricatus
Chestnut Polypore - Laccocephalum hartmannii or maybe Phlebopus marginatus

Saturday, 19 March 2016

why do people hate insects?

There is a whole industry devoted to killing insects. I don't understand this widespread hatred of insects. Some insects are so-called pests and some are supposedly useful to us humans, but as long as none are in plague proportions they are all part of the biodiversity needed for a healthy ecosystem.

Insects eat and are eaten and they pollinate flowers. They are so diverse it is practically meaningless to generalize about them. But I guess that's what prejudice is - it's about stereotypes and over-generalization.  Who's going to advocate for insect rights?

Robber Fly, species unknown

The insects above are one of hundreds of species of fly from the family Asilidae, commonly known as Robber Flies, or Assassin flies. I asked the experts at the Melbourne Museum if they could identify it but they said the exact species can't be determined from the photo because it doesn't show how big it is, and it doesn't have a dorsal view to look at the wings and other features. 

These flies eat other insects, and catch their prey mid-flight. They're found all over Australia, living in forests, woodlands and urban areas. They have their rather alarming name because each leg of the robber fly has a pair of strong claws that they use to catch their prey, before injecting it with a powerful poison. Enzymes help to digest the meal until all that remains is a discarded exoskeleton.

Bush Fly, probably

Another fly, another photo not good enough for exact identification of the species. Here's what Simon from the Discovery Centre at the Melbourne Museum wrote:

It could be a bush fly but it is too hard to be sure without also getting a dorsal image of the fly. It is important to be able to see the wings as the venation allows you to place in to family.

Bush flies give other flies a bad name. They breed in dung and are said to spread harmful bacteria. And there's a lot of cow dung in Australian because of the cattle industry.

Bush flies used to be very common when the weather turned warm, but there aren't so many of them now because of the Australian Dung Beetle Project. Scientists imported and released several species of dung beetles from Africa and Europe. The beetles bury the dung, depriving the flies of their breeding grounds and successfully controlling their numbers.

European Wasp

I hope scientists discover a way to control the spread of European wasps. I hate these insects and find them really scary. They are very aggressive and can sting repeatedly, unlike bees that sting you once then die. When I realized there was a wasp nest in the compost I ran away and they chased me, stinging me on the back of my legs. That was quite a few years ago but it's not something you forget.

Unlike bees, wasps don't collect pollen from trees and flowers but they're still attracted to nectar. This one is having a feast on some fennel flowers.

Dead Passionvine Hopper

Scolypopa australis, commonly known as Passionvine Hoppers, have transparent wings and elongated mouthparts that form a tube to enable them to feed by sucking up the sap of plants. They can be found on the bark of tree trunks and branches, and leaves. When you try to catch them or touch them they jump up very fast and very high. They're native to Australia and are found in urban gardens in Eastern mainland Australia and Tasmania. They are regarded as pests because they excrete honeydew that leads to the growth of black-grey mould on the cultivated and ornamental plants they frequent.

They look like a small moth but they're not moths. This one posed for me because it was dead. Alive, they're hard to photograph because they're so fast.

Live Planthopper, photo by Jeevan Jose for Wikipedia
photo by David Taft
Heat, humidity and a bit of rain means plenty of food for Redback Spiders to eat. There are a lot of them around at this time of year living in people's gardens. I haven't seen any here for a while. This one was in my friend David's garden. The female spider is tending to her egg sacs. Inside each egg sac are about 250 eggs. They won't all survive because stronger siblings eat weaker spiderlings and unhatched eggs. You've got to be careful around this spider because its bite will hurt, but they still have their place in a biodiverse ecosystem, and they help us by eating insects like mosquitos. 

Monday, 14 March 2016

it's autumn but it feels like summer

Unprecedented! Record breaking!  These are some of the words being used to describe what is happening weather-wise. Officially, summer is over and it's autumn. But it's still hot, really hot. We are just coming out of a week of temperatures in the 30s (35 centigrade = 95 fahrenheit). Last night it rained and the garden isn't exactly smiling but isn't looking nearly as depressed and depressing.

There have been losses.  Geranium incana, supposedly a one drip plant, didn't manage to survive the brutal heat. Same with Euphorbia martinii. Even the ones in the shade dried out. I did hand water a few times to help the newbies that were in their first summer.

Valeriana officinalis
I felt pressure to water from a couple of friends who  seemed to get quite distressed seeing the struggling plants. You give water to the birds - plants are living things too! They don't understand my project - to find plants that will sustain themselves waterwise. These friends grow vegetables and have watering systems. Mine is a different kind of garden. I like the fact it looks like it belongs in a hot Australian summer instead of looking all green and pretty like a European cottage garden. At times my garden has looked like a European cottage garden, but in spring, never in summer.

Looking at the ravaged garden, I think the trick is to try to focus on what has survived, a glass half full approach. Echiums, wattles, gums, lomandas and lots more are all ok. It's harder now for plants to get established. I used to move plants around as if they were furniture and didn't have roots. Now I'm trying to leave them if they're doing well and not be so fussy about the growing picture they make.

After a few hours rain everything has perked up. It's surprising and makes me happy to see how much has survived and recovered from stress.

I'm linking this post with GBBD - Garden Bloggers Bloom Day, at May Dreams Gardens.

Liriope muscarii
Acacia Iteaphylla 
Garlic Chives, with tiny mystery beetle 

Sunday, 14 February 2016

welcoming birds and insects to the garden

One way of welcoming insects to the garden is to make or buy a special insect house. It provides a place where insects can go when it's rainy or cold, to shelter and lay their eggs. Insect eggs hatch when the temperature and climate are right. Some insects lay their eggs on leaves of plants so the young can have a supply of food when they hatch. Others, like solitary native bees and wasps, like to lay their eggs somewhere safe from predators, and sheltered from the weather. So far no bees or wasps have used of this particular house, because I would have heard them buzzing. But there is webbing there, so it has been used already by some creatures.


The way to welcome birds is to provide a variety of plants for food and shelter - tall trees, with a dense under- storey of plants to provide shelter and safety for small birds. The other way is to provide them with clean water for drinking and bathing. The video shows some Magpies using the bird bath. Other birds that have come regularly lately, are Pied Currawongs,  Little Wattlebirds and Pigeons. I have also seen - and heard - chittering flocks of tiny insect eating birds in the garden, such as various species of Thornbills. But only once, on a very hot day, did they use the bird bath. 

Butterflies need water too, but it needs to be in a very shallow bowl. Planting butterfly attracting plants is the best way to attract butterflies. If they flower at different times the butterflies may stay long enough to breed. I've planted a little group of Bursaria spinosa, a plant indigenous to this area, and supposedly a magnet for butterflies. They haven't flowered yet, but hopefully soon there'll be more butterflies in the garden and more different species.

Bursaria spinosa
Heteronympha merope - Common Brown Butterfly

Photographing a dead insect certainly makes it easier to capture the details. Common Brown butterflies are native to Australia. This butterfly is a male - you can tell by the markings on the wings. One generation of these insects are completed each year. The butterflies emerge in mid-spring, but the females are inactive until mid-summer. By late summer the males are all dead and only the females are still alive. So it seems likely that this particular butterfly died a natural death.

Friday, 29 January 2016

habitat garden, garden habitat

Finding drowned insects in the bird bath made me realize that it's not only birds that need water. So I've placed a large stone to provide a safe platform for thirsty insects, while still leaving enough room for birds to have a bath.

In this post I showcase some of the diversity of insect life I've found in the garden (and the house) this summer.

Conocephalomima barameda

This katydid appeared in the laundry. I managed to relocate it to the garden but first used the opportunity for a photo shoot. I think it's doing a poo. 

Katydid is one of its common names. Thanks to Simon at the Discovery Centre at Melbourne Museum, I'm able to identify and describe the exact species. It's a native species found in southeast Australia where it occurs from coastal heath or sub-alpine woodland. Apparently it can be very abundant and during drought times may seek water in gardens - or, as in this case - in laundries.

Orb spider web

I think spider webs are one of the wonders of the natural world. Different kinds of spiders build different kinds of webs. This one is an orb web, most efficient for catching flying insects - and blundering humans who can't see it unless the light is right!  I don't know which spider made this web because when I found it early one morning, the spider wasn't there.

In one part of the garden I often see these strange structures made of webbing. I asked the Discovery Centre for an explanation and got this reply:

It can be difficult to tell what constructed the webbing without seeing the occupant, or least evidence of the occupant. Insects and spiders leave behind evidence such as cast skins and frass (wastes) which can often give a clue. Without further evidence, the webbing is most likely to be from the Social Spider (Phryganoporus candidus). Adult spiders are about 1 cm long, and pale silvery-yellow, found in every state in Australia. They are particularly common in the drier areas of Victoria. The nests are usually occupied during summer so if it is this species, it's probably a nest from last summer.

Inside this webbing is, or was, a large community of critters, consisting of about one hundred spider siblings, as well as opportunistic parasites and scavengers. Not that it's a harmonious, truly cooperative community like a beehive. Spiders are notoriously individualistic. The fact the siblings aren't eating each other is probably due to pheromones. Kind of like the use of antidepressants with us humans.

More info on these spiders can be found at http://www.arachne.org.au/01_cms/details.asp?ID=1824

 Didymoctenia exsuperata (from above)
 Didymoctenia exsuperata (from below)

This tiny moth, two cms from one delicate, intricately patterned wingtip to the other, kindly went to sleep on a window, enabling me to photograph it from both sides. I couldn't find much info about this moth on the web, other than it is a species of Ennominae that occurs in Australia.

Thursday, 31 December 2015

testing times

I like the look of a dry garden because it looks natural in a harsh climate. This December has had record-breaking high temperatures, and we are told this is the new normal, not a freakish early summer.

In nurseries, plants now are generally classified as one drip for drought resistance, two drips for needs seasonal watering and three drips for thirsty plants. What this doesn't take into account is position, position, position.  

It's not only thirst that does 'em in, I've noticed. Sometimes I say the most important part of a plant is underground, what you don't see. This is to remind people that plants have roots. But of course leaves are equally important. If a plant is unshaded, and doesn't have the capacity to soak up the strong sunshine, its leaves will shrivel and it will die no matter how much water you give it.

Tough grasses dotted irregularly along the path

So what does gardening in this heat mean for me? It means looking and observing with minimum compassion and maximum ruthlessness. I selected a small number of plants to water because it is their first summer and I think they are tough enough and in the right position to survive in time. The rest, I just watch. Lots are happy and doing well, but quite a few just give up and become shrivelled and dried out.

Gaps in the garden

The gaps they leave become opportunities for me to replace them with tougher and more suitable plants. They also give a different perspective on the design of the garden. For example, I had a drift of Euphorbia martinii in the front. One of the five plants was larger than the others. It is the only one that has survived.  Come autumn, I won't just recreate the drift with different plants. I'll change the planting pattern as well as the plants.

Unknown Clematis species with small fluffy flowers

... and when it's just too hot to go out into the garden I read nursery catalogues or browse the shelves of Bunnings and Masters for ideas.

Yellow flowers of Bronze Fennel light up the garden
between Leptospermum brevipes and Snow Gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora) 

I'm linking this post to Helen Johnstone's End of Month View meme in her blog The Patient Gardener. This meme has been going for 6 years now, and is a great opportunity to share the progress of your garden with others all around the world.

Banksia marginata and Derwentia perfoliata - hot weather heroes

As I write this it is raining - really hard. When it stops it will be exciting to see what has recovered - and what hasn't. Not that that's the end of it. We're only a third of the way into summer and it's going to be a long hot summer. The rain is just providing temporary relief. I'm not complaining though - that's the nature of gardening in Melbourne at this time of climate change. Other people in other places in Australia are doing it really tough - battling floods and bushfires.

Some of the summer heroes: Plumbago, Euphorbia rigida, Dianella caerulea, Lambs Ears,
 Garlic Chives, Echium candicans, Lavatera, Dietes bicolor, Dodonaea viscosa (Hop Bush)
More summer heroes: Euphorbia martinii, Canary Island Wormwood, Broad Leaved Sage (Salvia berggarten)

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